The current world is experiencing the most complex building boom in its history. To respond to this unprecedented construction wave, the built environment research field must continue to invest in innovation. This is especially true when new technologies will revolutionize the way people live together. By 2030, the global population is projected to exceed 9 billion, which means the demand for living space will double. This calls for new building shapes, new materials, new ways to develop green spaces and new types of energy.
The history of building design and construction.
The first houses were built by hand, although we know that the Babylonians took on the task of building houses using bricks after they discovered mud and stone. Over time, houses evolved and became more structurally sound and convenient – and this was also necessary given the different sizes of houses, from a tiny hut to a vast palace. Yet, from the 16th to the early 18th centuries, the most prominent design trend was the emergence of the traditional European palace, with the Renaissance-era buildings being characterized by symmetry and symmetry of their plan’s elements. The baroque period was distinguished by the use of a larger variety of building shapes than the previous style, although it also exhibited high symmetry.
Building design changes.
Throughout the 20th century, the world experienced the emergence of some of the most spectacular and modernistic styles: functionalism, rationalism and international architecture. During this era, buildings often became an integral part of urban planning, serving functional requirements. It was in this period that more and more buildings were erected to function like the glass box that became popular in New York, Paris, and San Francisco. To this day, the current design trend is to incorporate functional space; for example, we can see the rise of glass atrium in hotels.
From the end of the 20th century onwards, the building construction style shifted to more sustainable methods of building, such as green and earth buildings. In response to this movement, builders created more environmentally friendly materials and developed new ways of manufacturing materials. Nonetheless, some of the biggest problems faced while designing green buildings were the challenges of energy and the growing demand for affordable housing.
Impact of technology in Architecture.
Despite the need to incorporate more sustainable materials, designs were still being produced with inefficient and highly polluting materials. This was partially because of the lack of innovation – and this resulted in an overreliance on the same old, inefficient materials. To this day, the global construction market has largely ignored the latest technological advancements and continues to overlook sustainable building methodologies that are based on principles like 3D printed bricks and prefabricated materials. To make up for this problem, architects, and builders are developing more affordable and eco-friendly materials with the aim of lowering the overall cost of a building.
A shift towards more energy-efficient buildings.
More recently, with the focus on sustainability, builders, and architects are adapting to new energy sources for heating and cooling. As the average temperature in cities increases – as a result of climate change and urbanization- architects and builders are incorporating features and spaces that are able to absorb energy. This energy can be taken from renewable sources like solar and wind. Moreover, the advent of building automation – combined with the development of technology – has made it easier to monitor and control these energy-saving buildings and make them more stable.
Thus, modern buildings are becoming more environmentally friendly. New technologies make it easier to make these buildings, and this provides the ability to build with more sustainable methods of construction. Nevertheless, the problem that should not go unnoticed is that we are still using the same materials and methods of building, which are still inefficient and costly. For example, we still use concrete to make buildings and this is a non-renewable material that emits high levels of carbon dioxide. We must therefore use the most innovative materials and sustainable methods to make buildings more eco-friendly and affordable, while making more effort to protect the environment.